Tejeros: The First Philippine Republic

There have been proposals to declare January 23 of every year as “Republic Day” to commemorate the founding of the Philippine Republic on this day in 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan. This republic lasted until March 1, 1901, when the American forces captured its only president, General Emilio Aguinaldo. That capture led to the end of […]

There was no protectorate on June 12, 1898

SOME claim that June 12 is not the fitting day to observe the country’s Independence Day because of a supposedly faulty passage in the document of the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spanish rule, which was signed on June 12, 1898, in Kawit, Cavite. The pertinent portion of the Acta de la proclamación de independencia […]

The Philippine National Anthem: Historical Notes

The Philippine National Anthem is a product of revolution, a response to the need of the revolutionary times that gave birth to it. And this need arose in 1898, when the revolution against Spain was in its second year and a Filipino victory was in sight. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo astutely recognised the need for national […]

To the Young Women of Malolos

Original Tagalog version: Sa Mga Kababaihang Taga Malolos This famous letter was written by Jose Rizal in Tagalog, while he was residing in London, upon the request of M. H. del Pilar. The story behind this letter is that on December 12, 1888, a group of twenty young women of Malolos petitioned governor-general Weyler for […]